Ch 21: The Progressive Confort Industrial Capitalism

  • Lesson Plans

    The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society ©2001

    by Gary B. Nash and Julie Roy Jeffrey John B. Howe, Peter J. Frederick, Allen F. Davis, Allan M. Winkler

    Focus Lesson 16

    Chapter 21: "The Progressives Confront Industrial Capitalism"

    AP* Course Description

    1. Progressive Era 
      1. Origins of Progressivism 
        1. Progressive attitudes and motives 
        2. Muckrakers 
        3. Social Gospel 
      2. Municipal, state, and national reforms 
        1. Political: suffrage 
        2. Social and economic: regulation 
      3. Socialism: alternatives 
      4. Black America 
        1. Washington, Du Bois 
        2. Civil rights organization 
      5. Roosevelt's Square Deal 
        1. Managing the trusts 
        2. Conservation 
      6. Taft 
        1. Pinchot-Ballinger controversy 
        2. Payne-Aldrich Tariff 
      7. Wilson's New Freedom 
        1. Tariffs 
        2. Banking reform 
        3. Antitrust Act of 1914 

    Key Components

    • Instructor's Guide: pp. 99–103 
    • Study Guide, Vol. II: pp. 54–62 
    • Test Bank: pp. 339–354 

    Key Web Sites

    Given the changing nature of the Internet, you may wish to preview these sites. Always check for updated links to U.S. history sites.

    Key Words and Terms

    • Robert La Follette 
    • Women's Trade Union League 
    • The Shame of the Cities 
    • The City: The Hope of Democracy 
    • "Big Bill" Haywood 
    • The Jungle 
    • Meat Inspection Act 
    • Muller v. Oregon 
    • NAACP 
    • Mann Act 
    • The Scientific Principles of Management 
    • Children's Bureau 
    • Sixteenth Amendment 
    • Federal Reserve System 
    • Clayton Act 
    • American Federation of Labor 
    • Ida Tarbell 
    • Jane Addams 
    • John Dewey 
    • Charlotte Gilman Perkins 
    • W.E.B. Du Bois 
    • "Mother" Jones 
    • muckraker 
    • City Beautiful movement 
    • New Nationalism 
    • Square Deal 
    • preservation 
    • U.S. Steel 
    • Lincoln Steffens 
    • Frederic C. Howe 
    • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 
    • Upton Sinclair 
    • Hepburn Act 
    • Pure Food and Drug Act 
    • Danbury Hatters case 
    • Ballinger-Pinchot controversy 
    • Frederick Taylor 
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire 
    • Progressive Party 
    • Industrial Relations Commission 
    • Underwood Tariff 
    • Seventeenth Amendment 
    • Federal Trade Commission 
    • Ludlow Massacre 
    • Florence Kelley 
    • Louis Brandeis 
    • Eugene Debs 
    • Gifford Pinchot 
    • Booker T. Washington 
    • Jacob Riis 
    • social justice 
    • Niagara movement 
    • New Freedom 
    • conservation 

    Suggested Pacing

    Allow one week to teach this chapter. 

    Test Strategy

    If a multiple-choice question appears easy, it really might be. Students should not automatically think that it is a trick question, but they should evaluate each answer carefully. 

    Key Concepts

    This chapter discusses the progressive movement at three levels of government: city, state, and national. It is worth noting that the reform movement began on the local level and moved upward. Students should not confuse progressivism with socialism. Some students may think that any government regulation is "socialistic" in nature. In truth, the progressives sought to make capitalism work more effectively. Socialism, on the other hand, is a political and economic philosophy that seeks to develop a classless society through public ownership of all means of production and channels of distribution.

    The three major themes of the chapter are (1) the differences between Theodore Roosevelt's Square Deal and Woodrow Wilson's New Frontier, (2) the moral concern that lay at the root of the progressive movement, and (3) what the authors of the text refer to as the "ambiguous attitudes" of the reformers toward the people they were trying to help.

    It would be useful to have students compare the response of African Americans to their declining rights. Help students to see the connection between the rise of Jim Crow laws and Ida B. Wells's anti-lynching campaign. Compare and contrast the two philosophies of Booker T. Washington, who represented a retreat from earlier demands, and W.E.B. Du Bois, who advocated action. 

    Summing Up Student Understanding

    As a summarizing activity for this chapter and a review tool for the AP* exam, have students complete a chart comparing and contrasting the policies of Roosevelt's Square Deal with those of Wilson's New Frontier. 


    You might also find these additional readings useful in developing students' background knowledge or for DBQ activities: 

    • American Issues: Vol. II Since 1865, edited by Unger and Tomes—Chapters 5 and 6 
    • The Power of Words: Vol. II From 1865, edited by Breen—Chapter 6 
    • Constructing the American Past, Vol. II, edited by Gorn, Roberts, and Bilhartz—Chapters 4 and 6 
    • American Experiences: Vol. II From 1877, edited by Roberts and Olson (secondary source readings)—Part Three